Book History

Author: Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine was born on January 29, 1737 in Norfolk, England. His father, Joseph Pain, was a Quaker staymaker and his mother, Francis Cocke, was a daughter of an attorney. An excellent writer as a youth, Thomas left school to work alongside his father as a staymaker. Living in virtually poor conditions because of high taxes and an overbearing duke, life was a struggle and over time, he longed for adventure. At age sixteen, in 1753, he ran away to become a privateer on a ship, called The Terrible, until his father found him and made him return home. After setting up his own master staymaker shop in 1759, he married to a complacent woman, named Mary Lambert, who died within a year of their marriage. However, during their marriage, he worked for her father as an excisemen (unattached officer) who fought liquor smugglers. Eventually, he was dismissed for participating with the smugglers in 1765 and became and English teacher at an academy in Noble in 1766. Paine considered this job to be one of the most mundane and still had his youth ambition for adventure and thus rejoined the excise service in 1768 and married Marries Elizabeth Ollive who was the daughter of Samuel Ollive (tradesmen with whom Paine lodged in Lewes, Sussex). By 1772, Paine published his first work Case of the Officers of Excise in a pamphlet and with this attempted to sponser a movement towards getting the cause of excisement into parliament with Oliver Goldsmith which failed. In 1774, he separated from his wife and was discharged once more from the excisemen service. Broke and frankly, rather desperate, Benjamin Franklin recognized his potential and sent him off to America. Printer and publisher, Robert Aitken offered Paine a job as editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine in which Paine published works on anti-slavery and independence. This led to one of his most influential works: Common Sense (1775). (Wilson and Ricketson, ix-xi) (Veccio, 9-41) Along with his memories of living in an oppressive English environment and the new revolutionary ideals disseminating throughout the colonies of America, Paine developed his intellectual contribution to the American Revolution. Some say, that he was the forgotten father of the Revolution. He developed disdain from the in-egalitarian society of England and slavery. The use of the magazine proved invaluable to Paine because it allowed for fairly wide dissemination amongst the newly developed with refined ideas American public and he created alliances with members of Congress. His motivation, he says, "... have been to rescue man from tyranny and false systems and false principles of government, and enable them to be free.... The mere independence of America were it to have been followed by a system of government modelled after the corrupt system of English Government, would have not have interested me with the unabated ardor it did. It was to bring forward and establish the representative system of government, as the work itself will show [Common Sense], that was the leading principle with me in writing." (Foner, 75) His publication of The Rights of Man, part1 and part 2 denounced king and monarchy once more in 1792. Paine embarked for France to take part in the National Assembly but was soon charged with sedition, tried and found guilty of treason. By 1793, he was arrested by the French for writing The Age of Reason in which he urged the volatile people of France to only banish King Louis XVI and not put him to death. Of course, anything that resembled any form of loyalty of the monarchy would land someone near death themselves. However, James Monroe made passage for his release and returned to America by 1802. Until his death in 1809, Paine suffered from alcoholism and because of his denunciation of the bible, he could not have been buried in a sacred cemetery. Thus, he was buried in New Rochelle.As Professors James D. Wilson and William F. Ricketson have said, "Paine was a 'man of the moment,' and this description explains to a great degree why he was so successful in America; he was in the right place at exactly the right time."
Bibliographic Information
This collection of works of Thomas Paine's was published by James Carey, No. 83, North Second-Street in Philadelphia. However, this is a group of collected works that had been previously published in the Pennsylvania Magazine by Robert Aitken in 1775. The book contains 391 pages of text with, after the preceding cover and title pages, an advertisement for the Pennsylvania Magazine. In this particular publication, the publisher states his purpose of the magazine: "The two capital supports of a magazine are utility and entertainment; the first is an aboundless path, the other an endless spring.... The press has not only a great influence over our manners and moral, but contributes largely to our pleasures; and a a magazine, when properly enriched, is very conveniently calculated for this purpose." In addition, there is an advertisement for other books printed and published by the same James Carey which include: An Apology for Christianity, In a series of letters Addressed to Edward Gibbon, Esq., Author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire By R. Watson, D.D. F.R.S. Lord Bishop of Landaff, and Regius professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. (Priced one quarter of a dollar); An Apology for the Bible, A Series of Letters, Addressed to Thomas Paine, Author of The Age of Reason, Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology; and The Frugal Housewife: Or, Complete Woman Cook; Wherein the art of dressing all sorts of Viands is explained upwards of five hundred approved receipts. Within the text of the book, each title page (usually with the date of publication), before the collected work, has been given by the publisher: 1. Common Sense: Addressed to the inhabitants of America on the following interesting subjects: I. Of the Origin and Designs of Government in general: with concise Remarks on the English Constitution; II. Of Monarchy and Hereditary Succession; III. On the present Abilities of America: with some miscellaneous Reflections.; Philadelphia: Printed by James Carey, No. 83, North Second-Street, 1796 2. The Crisis, December 13, 1776 3. The Crisis - Number II to Lord Howe, Philadelphia, January 13, 1777 4. The Crisis - Number III, April 19, 1777 5. The Crisis - Number IV, Philadelphia, September 12, 1777 6. The Crisis - Number V to General Sir William Howe, Lancaster, March 12, 1778 7. The Crisis - Number VI to the Earl of Carlisle, General Clinton, and William Eden, Esq. British Commissioners, at New York, Philadelphia, October 20, 1778 8. The Crisis - Number VII to the People of England, Philadelphia November 21, 1778 9. The Crisis - Number VIII Addressed to the People of England 10. The Crisis - Number IX, Philadelphia, June 9, 1780 11. The Crisis Extraordinary, Philadelphia, October 6, 1780 12. The Crisis - Number X on the King of England's Speech 13. The Crisis - Number X on the King of England's Speech 14. The Crisis - Number XI on the Present State of News, Philadelphia May 22, 1782 15. Supernumerary Crisis 16. The Crisis - Number XII to the Earl of Shellburne 17. Supernumerary Crisis 18. The Last Crisis - Number XIII, Philadelphia April 19, 1783 19. Supernumerary Crisis 20. The Public Good, Being an Examination into the Claim of Virginia to the vacant Western Territory and of the Right of the United States to the same, 1780. Preface by the author in Philadelphia, February 18, 1786 21. Letter Addressed to the Abbe Raynal on the Affairs of North America in which the mistakes in the Abbe's account of the Revolution of America are collected and cleaned up. 22. Dissertations on Government, the Affairs of the Bank and Paper-Money. Preface by the author in Philadelphia, February 18, 1786. 23. Miscellaneous Pieces, In Prose and Verse, Published in the Pennsylvania Magazine, 1775. Within the front cover, there are stickers of the previous books owners, only two of which are legible: Samuel P. Borazil Gordon, January 1, 1880 and Gordon. The said Samuel P. Gordon inscribed his name on the title page of the collected works.
Physical Description
The manufacturing of books during the revolutionary era of America was a product of the industry of the time and the developing economic independence of America from England. There are two volumes of which the first is the one in question. The book itself, incorporates American rag linen paper which, on the title page has been severely stained due to sun exposure and throughout the book the ink transferred through pages onto the others suggesting the acidity of the ink of the time. In addition, moisture exposure damage remain prevalent in the modulations of the pages themselves. For example, the front pages of the book have ripples that increase in intensity as each page is turned until the pages flatten. The rest of the pages remain somewhat rippled along the perimeters of the book, but never to the extremity to the front pages. The demensions of the book are 8.75" x 5.4" x 1.25". The binding was made with board and leather. Along the frontal hinge of the book, the cover has suffered heavily from use and has greatly torn from the spine. However, it revealed the intricate threadings that made up the book binding's composition. The spine incorporated a red squire heading box with gold leaf embroidering which states, "Paine's Works" with "Paine's" at the top of the box and "Works" at the bottom. Beneath there is a blank box bottoming out with a gold leafed line (spanning the depth of the book). Following is another box that has the number "1" (the volume number) within a black seal fringed in gold leaf. This is followed by another blank box with the same said leafing of the previous empty box.
Publisher: James Carey
The publisher of The Works of Thomas Paine was a newspaper editor named James Carey who founded two short-lived Philadelphia papers in the late 1790s: the Universal Advertiser and the United States Recorder. After previous research, there remains no further information, in the sources available, on the whereabouts or history of James Carey as publisher or printer. This could suggest the use of a fake name as a means of protecting the publisher's credibility from pirating in which case, a further investigation should be executed. Mathew Carey, on the other hand, seems to be the most likely candidate for an investigation give his time of publishing, printing in later correspondence with his partner and brother-in-law, Isaac Lea, and, his other partner, William A. Blanchard. However, the works in this publication of The Works of Thomas Paine, were originally printed and published in 1775 in the Pennsylvania Magazine which was a newsletter by Robert Aitekn, the first American printer to print the Bible in English. Aitken offered Paine the position of editorship which Paine took enthusiastically. The magazine's purpose was to entertain rather than inform the amorphous American public. As the magazine's popularity grew (printing on a per month basis doubling from 600 - 1500 printed copies), Paine became popular. The magazine would print 4 pages of text much of which were advertisements. At the beginning of the the book, in front of the publication of Common Sense, therein lies an advertisement for the Pennsylvania Magazine. This is significant because it represents the change styles of book manufacturing and production as America identifies itself away from England during the Revolutionary War. In this particular publication, the publisher states his purpose of the magazine: "The two capital supports of a magazine are utility and entertainment; the first is an aboundless path, the other an endless spring.... The press has not only a great influence over our manners and moral, but contributes largely to our pleasures; and a a magazine, when properly enriched, is very conveniently calculated for this purpose."
Manifestations
There have been 25 known editions of Common Sense across American and England. It is said that this was his most popular work which sold around 200,000 copies.
Bibliography
Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America.: Oxford University Press (New York, 1976). Gimbel, Richard. Thomas Paine: A Bibliographical Check List of 'Common Sense' with an account of its publication.: Yale University Press (New Haven, 1956). Larkin, Edward. “Inventing an American Public: Thomas Paine, the “Pennsylvania Magazine,” and American Revolutionary Discourse.” Early American Literature Vol. 333, No. 3 (1998): 250-276. Larkin, Edward. Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution.: Cambridge University Press (New York, 2005). Lehmann-Haupt, Hellmut. The Book in America; A History of the Making, the Selling, and the Collecting of Books in the United States.: R.R. Bowker Company (New York, 1939). Taraporevala, Russi Jal. The American Book Industry.: D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. (Bombay, 1967). Veccio, Thomas Del. Tom Paine: American; A new perspective that restores Paine to his rightful position as a patriotic American without peer.: Whittier Books, INC. (New York, 1956). Wilson, Jerome D. and William F. Ricketson. Thomas Paine.: Twayne Publishers (Boston, 1989).
Essay
Revolutionary America unraveled as a complex series of occurrences founded on the basis on political, technological, and social movements. During this time, Thomas Paine was a major contributor to the spread of political information through newspapers and pamphlets to the newly formed American public at large. The Works of Thomas Paine, by Thomas Paine, provides an ample collection of Paine’s works from nearly two decades from 1775 to 1796. Thomas Paine sought to reach out to the forming American public through the use of publishing in order to promote his own opinions about the Revolution. The text is significant to the overall understanding of the motivations of Thomas Paine and his publishing career because it provides unique examples of the various works that were meant to influence the new coming American public. Thomas Paine was born on January 29, 1737 in Norfolk, England. His father, Joseph Pain, was a Quaker staymaker and his mother, Francis Cocke, was a daughter of an attorney. An excellent writer as a youth, Thomas left school to work alongside his father as a staymaker. Living in virtually poor conditions because of high taxes and an overbearing duke, life was a struggle and over time, he longed for adventure. At age sixteen, in 1753, he ran away to become a privateer on a ship, called The Terrible, until his father found him and made him return home. After setting up his own master staymaker shop in 1759, he married a complacent woman named Mary Lambert, who died within a year of their marriage. However, during their marriage he worked for her father as an excisemen (unattached officer) who fought liquor smugglers. Eventually, he was dismissed for participating with the smugglers in 1765 and became an English teacher at an academy in Noble in 1766. Paine considered this job to be one of the most mundane and still had his youth ambition for adventure and thus rejoined the excise service in 1768 and married Marries Elizabeth Ollive who was the daughter of Samuel Ollive (tradesmen with whom Paine lodged in Lewes, Sussex). By 1772, Paine published his first work Case of the Officers of Excise in a pamphlet and with this attempted to sponsor a movement towards getting the cause of excisement into parliament with Oliver Goldsmith which failed. In 1774, he separated from his wife and was discharged once more from the excisemen service. Broke and frankly rather desperate, Benjamin Franklin recognized his potential and sent him off to America. Printer and publisher, Robert Aitken offered Paine a job as editor of the Pennsylvania Magazine in which Paine published works on anti-slavery and independence. This led to one of his most influential works: Common Sense (1775).[1.Jerome D. Wilson and William F. Ricketson, ix-xi, Veccio, 9-41] Along with his memories of living in an oppressive English environment and the new revolutionary ideals disseminating throughout the colonies of America, Paine developed his intellectual contribution to the American Revolution. Some say, that he was the forgotten father of the Revolution. He developed disdain from the in-egalitarian society of England and slavery. The use of the magazine proved invaluable to Paine because it allowed for public dissemination amongst the transfiguring colonial audience. His motivations, he says, “... have been to rescue man from tyranny and false systems and false principles of government, and enable them to be free.... The mere independence of America were it to have been followed by a system of government modeled after the corrupt system of English Government, would have not have interested me with the unabated ardor it did. It was to bring forward and establish the representative system of government, as the work itself will show [Common Sense], that was the leading principle with me in writing.”[2. Eric Foner, 75] His publication of The Rights of Man, Part 1 and Part 2 denounced king and monarchy once more in 1792. Paine embarked for France to take part in the National Assembly but was soon charged with sedition, tried, and found guilty of treason. By 1793, he was arrested by the French for writing The Age of Reason in which he urged the volatile people of France to only banish King Louis XVI and not put him to death. Of course, anything that resembled any form of loyalty of the monarchy would land someone near death themselves. However, James Monroe made passage for his release and returned to America by 1802. Until his death in 1809, Paine suffered from alcoholism and because of his denunciation of the Bible; he could not have been buried in a sacred cemetery. Thus, he was buried in New Rochelle. As Professors James D. Wilson and William F. Ricketson have said, “Paine was a 'man of the moment,' and this description explains to a great degree why he was so successful in America; he was in the right place at exactly the right time.” Through Paine’s personal narrative, people can see how Paine worked to invent his own “literature of politics” where popular methods of spreading news in magazines met politics. Thomas Paine sought to reach out to the forming American public through the use of publishing in order to promote his own opinions about the Revolution. The text proves significant to the overall understanding of the motivations of Thomas Paine and his publishing career because it provides the unique examples of the various works that did influence the American public.

Submitted by Shellye L. Burrow
Published: 1796
Call Number: JC177.A3 1797
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